English translation of commonly used terms in Chinese medicine2020-11-23
①traditional Chinese medicine②traditional Chinesephysician
traditionalChinese medicine and pharmacology
Chinese materiamedica，Chinese medicinals(包括植物药、动物药、矿物药等）
Chinese HerbalMedicine,Chinese medicinal herbs
integration of traditional and western medicine
basictheory of traditional Chinese medicine
diagnostics of traditional Chinese medicine
prescriptions of Chinese materia medica，
Traditional Chinese Medical Formulae/ prescriptions
internal medicine of traditional Chinese medicine
阴阳The Theory of Yinand Yang
Opposition of yin and yang
Restriction of/between yin and yang
Interdependence of yin and yang
Waxing and waning of yin and yang
Inter-transformation of yin and yang
五行学说 The Theory of Five Elements
water, fire, wood, metal, soil
act, restrict, restrain
overact, over-restrict, over-restrain, subjugate, overwhelm
counteract, counter-restrict, counter-restrain, rebel
整体观念 concept of organicwholeness
sprouting, growth, transformation, ripening, storage
the unity between the internal and external environments
the integrity of the body itself
classic Chinese materialism and dialectics
the contradictory unity
related to each other and influence each other
Biao (secondary aspect) and Ben (primary aspect)
nature and phenomena
universality and speciality of contradictions
cold disease should be treated by warm therapy
warm disease should be treated by cold therapy
deficiency syndrome should be treated by tonifying therapy
excess syndrome should be treated by purgation therapy
Treatment of diseases must concentrate on the root cause
treatment of the same disease with different therapeutic methods
treatment of different diseases with the same therapeutic method
the lucid Yang ascends to form the heaven
the turbid Yin descends to constitute the earth
ascending,descending, going out, coming in
if the activities of going out and coming into stop, the transforming mechanism of Shen (Spirit) will be damaged; if the activities of ascending and descending stop, Qi will be immediately isolated and endangered.
the theory of body and spirit
the body and the Shen (Spirit) exist simultaneously
the unity between the body and the Shen (Spirit)
Sufficient Healthy-Qi inside the body will prevent invasion of pathogenic factors.
The region where pathogenic factors invades must be deficient in Qi.
Abidance to the changes of the four seasons, active adapation to cold and heat, harmony of emotional changes and peaceful living.
cultivating health, preventing disease and prolonging life
primordial ( yuan qi)
genuine qi (zhenqi)
pectoral qi (zong qi)
nutritive qi( yingqi)
defensive qi(wei qi)
promoting action of Qi
warming actionof Qi
defending action of Qi
controlling action of Qi
action of Qi Transformation
nutrient qiand body fluid
nourishing and moistening
Blood is responsible for nurturing body.
The middle energizer receives qi, takes the juice and transforms into red liquid called blood.
Body fluid /Jin and Ye
property, function, distribution
gastric juice, intestinal juice, nasal discharge, tears, sweat, urine
transmitting of thespleen
dispersing and descenging of the lung
steaming and transforming of the kidney
the triple energizerserve as the passage-way
After food and water have entered the stomach, they are digested and transformed into food essence and then, transmitted upward to the spleen, which disperses the essence upward to the lung and the lung regulates water pathways downward to the urinary bladder. And by doing so body fluid is finally disseminated to all parts of the body along all the meridians and collaterals.
Body fluid is formed from food and water by digestion and absorption of the stomach, separating the clarity from the turbidity of the small intestine and tramformation of the spleen; the distribution and excretion of body fluid are accomplished by the joint action of many zang-fu organ, such as the transforming function of the spleen, the dispersing and descending function of the lung, the steaming and ascending function of the kidney; and body fluid takes triple energizer as its passage way for distribution and excretion.
藏象学说 The Theory of Visceral Manifestation
the internalorgans, viscera.
solid organs, viscera, depots, zang organs, yin organs
hollow organs, bowels (the intestines), palaces, fu organs, yang organs
five viscera,five zang organs, the yin organs
six bowels, six fu organs, the yang organs
heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney
gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, smallintestine, (urinary) bladder, triple energizer/burner
extraordinary fu organs
brain, marrow, bone, vessel, gallbladder, uterus
upper/ middle/lower energizer/burner
gate of life, life gate, vital gate, gate of vitality
Dantan /Elixir field
dorso-ventral boundary (of the hand or foot),
liver (orconception vessel)
uterus (orconception vessel)
storing essencewithout leaking
digesting andtransporting food and drink without storing essence /transform food into essence but not store it
The heart governs the blood and (blood ) vessels.
The heart regulates the flow of blood.(circulation)
The heart stores the spirit.
The heart opens into the tongue.
The tongue is the sprout of the heart.
The Heart’s brilliance manifests in the face.
The heart’s bloom is in the face.
The heart has its outward manifestations on theface.
The heart stands in interior-exterior relationship with the small intestine.
The lung governs qi.
The lung regulates the waterways.
The lungs move and adjust the Water Channels.
The lung governs the skin and [body] hair.
The lung is in charge of the body surface.
The lung is interrelated with the skin and [body]hair.
The brilliance of the Lungs manifests in the bodyhair.
In other words, the Lungs regulate the secretion of sweat, the moistening of the skin, and resistance to External Pernicious Influences.
The lung opens at thenose.
鼻为息道。The nose is the“thoroughfare for respiration”.
Many common nose and throat disorders aretherefore treated through the Lungs.
The lung stands in interior-exterior relationship with the large intestine.
The lung governs qi and the heart governs blood.
The lung is the receptacle that holds phlegm and the spleen is the source of phlegm formation.
The lung is the governor of qi and the kidney is the root of qi.
The lung is in charge of the body surface.
The lung governs qi, performs respiration/controlls breathing
governs disseminating, cleansing and descending/ governs diffusion, purification and descending
regulates the waterways
The lung connecting all vessels/The lung faces all the blood vessels, governs management and regulation
The spleen governs movement （transportation) and transformation of grain and water and distribution of its essence.
The spleen manages the blood.
The spleen governs the flesh and limbs, and opens into the mouth.
Take in, food intake
Decompose, digest food into chyme
The stomach governs intake and decomposition (digestion) of grain and water.
Send clarity (pure) upward
The small intestine governs separation of theclear and the turbid.
the large intestine governs transformation and conveyance of waste.
The liver governs free coursing, which refers toliver qi’s physiological function of ensuring smooth free flow (of qi and blood).
Ensuring smooth and regular floe of qi;
Secretion and discharge of bile
Emotional disturbance: mental depression, impatience,etc.
The liver stores blood.
The liver is capable of retaining blood and regulating the amount of blood in the body.
Food qi enters the stomach and sends essence to the liver.
The liver governs the sinews; its bloom is the nails.
The liver governs the sinews: the movement of all the sinews of the body is associated with the liver.
The liver opens atthe eyes.
The kidney stores essence (or essential qi), andis responsible for growth, development, and reproduction. （maturation)
The kidney governs the bones and engenders marrow.
The kidney governs water.
The kidney opens into the ears and the two yin(the two private parts: the urethra and anus) and its bloom is in the hair of the head.
moisten and nourish
warm and activate
produce and store essence
receive, trsport and transform water and food
Viscera inside the body must manifest themselves externally.
Evil; Pathogenic factor; Pathogen
six excesses; six exogenous pathogenic factors; six climatic pathogenic factors; Six external pernicious influences
wind, cold,summer-heat, dampness, dryness,fire
diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic factor
Six qi; Six natural factors;Six climatic factors; Six climatic influences；Six exogenous qi
Pestilence; pestilential qi
Five Endogenous Pathogenic Factors; Five Internal Pernicious Influences
seven emotions; seven affects
joy, anger, melancholy (sadness, worry), anxiety (pensiveness, contemplation), grief (sorrow), fear, fright
internal damage due to seven emotions
Improper diet; imbalanced diet
Internal damage of the spleen and stomach will result in the occurrence of various diseases./The occurrence of various diseases may result from the internal damage of the spleen and stomach.
Traumatic injuries due to fall, cuts, insect or animal bites